Identity theory and social identity theory are two remarkably similar perspectives on the dynamic mediation of the socially constructed self between individual behavior and social structure. The list did not indicate any personal identifiers e. Trepte and others published social identity theory. Through manual search of the references in the 72 aforementioned papers for. Henri tajfel and john turner devised their social identity theory sit in the 1970s to supplement sherifs realistic conflict theory rct, which was developed in the 1950s and 60s.
Father of the theory, french, jewish was part of the holocaust. A related but more complex approach was taken by smith and henry 8, who asked. Social identity theory an overview sciencedirect topics. Social identity theory henri tajfel and john turner 1979 this is working towards objective 1. The social identity theory was originated from two british social psychologists henri tajfel and john turner in 1979, and states that part of a persons concept of self comes from the groups to which that person belongs. It is based on the notion that social identities are part of the selfconcept. Information international social science council 1974. Sit offers a social psychological perspective, developed principally by henri tajfel 1978, 1981. The second experiment was very similar to the first. Itfails to account for social change in the sense of in the mutual relations. Tajfel caption right was a polish jew whose family were killed in nazi death camps. Social identity and intergroup behaviour henri tajfel, 1974. Intergroup discrimination and the henri tajfel experiments.
By contrast, an outgroup is a social group with which an individual does not identify. View the article pdf and any associated supplements and figures for a period of 48 hours. First proposed by tajfel and turner in 1979, social identity theory has proved enormously influential in stimulating new theory and research, and in its application to social problems. Our initial assumption, based on much evidence, is that people strive for a positive image of themselves. Social identity theory is the attempt made at bristol, initiated by henri tajfel, to make sense of these findings. We are grateful to our colleagues of the transnational group on the dynamics of conflict, particularly to morton deutsch and serge moscovici, for many helpful discussions. Henri tajfel formerly hersz mordche june 22, 1919 wloclawek, poland may 3, 1982 in bristol, uk was a british social psychologist, best known as the principal codeveloper of social identity theory. This theory was developed by henri tajfel pronounced tiefell and john turner, two british psychologists. Biography henri tajfel was the son of a polish jewish businessman. He settled in britain but devoted himself to researching prejudice and discrimination. The social identity theory was originated from two british social psychologists henri tajfel and john turner in 1979, and states that part of a persons concept of self comes from the groups to which.
The social identity theory of intergroup behavior 277. Originally published in 1982, this book represented some of the facets of. This study of intergroup relations remained for long on the periphery of mainstream social psychology. Towards a clearer understanding of social identity theorys self. Later, turner 1981 elaborated on the elements by articulating the processes of social identity development with a theory of selfcategorization hogg and terry, 2000. Social identity theory was developed by henri tajfel and john turner in the 1970s. The theory is based on tajfel s own experiences as a polish jew during world war ii. In sum, merging with members of other groups to form a superordinate group can. Social identity theory, which was formulated by social psychologist henri tajfel and john turner in the 1970s, describes the conditions under which social identity becomes more important than ones identity as an individual. Of social identity theory good way of understanding human behavior, i. An individual does not just have a personal selfhood, but multiple selves and identities associated with their affiliated groups. The original core premises of social identity theory were derived from tajfel and turners work.
According to the theory, the basis of social prejudice is the enhancement of selfesteem by discrimination against outgroups. Henri tajfels greatest contribution to psychology was social identity theory. Henri tajfel s greatest contribution to psychology was social identity theory. The henri tajfel experiments intergroup discrimination refers to the phenomenon where factions of a single group develop conflicts against each other as byproducts of competition and prejudice. Social identity theory proposes that a persons sense of who they are depends on the groups to which they belong. Both of these theories attempt to explain intergroup behaviour, and in particular conflict between groups. Henri tajfel social psychologist biography henri tajfel, who became one of the most famous and influential social psychologists of the twentieth century began his life in poland. People may for example identify with their peer group, family, community, sports team, political party, gender, religion, or nation. Such group membership being, depending upon circumstances, possibly associable with the appearance of prejudice and. Essay the theory and theories of social identity theory. Social identity and intergroup relations european studies in social psychology.
Such group membership being, depending upon circumstances, possibly associable with. Social identity theory henri tajfel and john turner. Describes, but does not accurately predict human behavior. The creation of group identities involves both the categorization of ones ingroup with regard to an outgroup and the tendency to view ones. Social categorization and intergroup behaviour tajfel. This experiment was designed to explore the internal processes of an individuals judgment, how little it takes for people to form into groups, and the degree to which people within a group tend to favour the ingroup and discriminate the outgroup. Tajfel and turner s social identity theory explains that part of a persons concept of self comes from the groups to which that person belongs. Social identity and intergroup relations european studies in social psychology tajfel, henri on. Social identity theory sit developed from tajfel s work on intergroup processes which focused on the genesis of conflict between social groups, and the factors which influence support for, or attempts to change, established social hierarchies tajfel, henri.
Henri tajfel and john turner, 1979 in 1979 henri tajfel and john turner proposed a social identity theory which held that there are three cognitive processes relevant to a persons being part of an ingroup, or of an outgroup. Social identity is a persons sense of who they are based on their group membership s. Social identity theory sit was developed by henri tajfel and his colleague john turner in order to understand certain selected uniformities of group behavior. This any en hybthesis may be a to account for some of determinants of social stability. The theory also specifies the ways in which social identity can influence intergroup behavior. Social identity theory tajfel, turner learning theories.
It is possible to criticise tajfel s social identity theory. Social identity theory henri tajfel and john turner, 1979. Social identity theory seen as a way to explain the holocaust and how one group could turn on another tajfel. Developing the legacy of henri tajfel international series in social psychology robinson, peter on.
Henri tajfel, born june 22, 1919, wloclawek, polanddied may 3, 1982, oxford, united kingdom, polishborn british social psychologist, best known for his concept of social identity, a central idea in what became known as social identity theory. Applications of social identity theory to research and. This landmark work offers a tour of the latest developments in social identity theory from the leading scholars in the field. Social identity theory developed from a series of studies, frequently called minimalgroup studies, conducted by the british social psychologist henri tajfel and his colleagues in the early 1970s. This theory was formulated by henri tajfel and john turner in the 1970s and 80s, as a means to explain intergroup behavior.
The social identity theory of intergroup behavior henri tajfel formerly of the university of bristol, england john c. Social identity and intergroup behaviour show all authors. Born into a jewish family, and originally known as hersz mordche, he later pursued third level studies in chemistry 19371939 at toulouse university and at the. Tajfel s social identity theory has become one of the main theories in european social psychology. A case study of henri tajfel, one of the originators of social identity theory, a core theory in social psychology, illustrates the ways in which norms of conduct that sustain sexual harassment are embedded within experimental cultures, and thus render reasonable the problematic conduct of some men experimenters. The experiments carried out by tajfel clearly demonstrate that intergroup discrimination is easy to trigger off. Consequences of social categorization and social identity. Social identity theory ao1 ao2 ao3 psychology wizard.
Social identity theory complements the realistic conflict theory by adding a symbolic dimension tapping peoples identities and belief systems tajfel and turner, 1986. This study was supported in part by a grant to the first author from the james marshall fund. Hogg ma\ mullin ba 0888 joining groups to reduce uncertainty subjective uncertainty. Islam 2014 assumes that one part of the selfconcept is defined by belonging to certain social groups. Tajfel society for the psychological study of social issues. Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations, london. Social identity theory was proposed in social psychology by tajfel and his. Participants were assigned to groups that were designed to be as arbitrary and meaningless as possible. However, fresh research and thinking did much to overcome this neglect of one of the fundamental issues of our time, so that it became a clearly visible and major trend of research within european social psychology. Social judgment theory experiment was conducted by henry tajfel along with his colleagues.
Developing the legacy of henri tajfel international series in social psychology. In sociology and social psychology, an ingroup is a social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member. Pdf social identity theory download read online free. Social identity and intergroup relations european studies. See also jigsaw classroom, minimal group situation, robbers cave experiment, stigmatize. Social identity theory sit can restore some coherence to organizational identification, and it can suggest fruitful applications to organizational behavior. The theory, first developed in the early 1970s in britain by henri tajfel tajfel. Another series of famous studies, the minimal group experiments by henri tajfel and his colleagues formed the foundations upon which social. Social identity theory tajfel turner learning theories.
Moderators of intergroup discrimination in the minimal. Social identity theory a foundation to build upon, not undermine. Social identity theory sit says we get our selfesteem from the groups we belong to. If group membership provides individuals with a sense of meaning, purpose, and belonging, it.1503 563 88 1293 1514 1125 1545 1140 1601 837 624 81 548 1137 782 127 817 923 713 1601 1589 923 1213 1137 78 1199 432 1443 512